|ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; TROPONINS; CARDIAC TROPONIN; SALIVA
||BSMLS / 233/ 2013
||Camarillas, Dan Israel J.; Lopez, Amanda Marie C.; Abiad, Jovelle S.; Fabillan, Mae Kristine H.; Serviano, Precious Madeja E.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane ; Cabanela, Reby A.
||Salivary sensitive cardiac troponin I levels in patients with myocardial infarction
||This study focused on the cardiac troponin I (cTnl) which is a sensitive and specific biomarker of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The objective is to identify unstimulated whole saliva cardiac troponin I and its comparison between patients with AMI and healthy individuals, determine its diagnostic potential comparison with serum cardiac troponin I, and provide an alternative test which is rapid, non-invasive, and cost effective. A case-control study was carried out in thirty (30) normal healthy individuals and thirty (30) patinets with acute MI who were admitted in three (3) different hospitals. cTnl levels were assayed in serum and unstimulated whole saliva at the first and second days of acute MI by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Paired sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and Independent Student’s t-test were performed. The mean saliva and serum levels of both the first and the second days of acute MI were significantly higher in patients with acute MI compared with healthy individuals. They were slightly higher in the first than in the second day. Saliva cTnl concentration did not correlated significantly with serum cTnl level in the first day and in the second day of acute MI. There is a significant rise in concentrations of salivary cTnl in AMI patients in comparison to healthy individuals who did not show rise in their salivary cTnl levels, however no significant correlation was found. These results suggest the reliability of saliva in detecting cTnl levels but further studies may be needed to determine the correlation of serum and salivary cTnl.
|ALLERGENS; ALLERGY; GEOHELMINTHIASIS
||BSMLS / 245/ 2013
||Chua, Shereen O.; Alegria, Charlene R.; Macalalad, Faustina C.; Malayba, Anne Camille R.; Mandigma, Alyssa Andrea D>; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Determination of geohelminthiasis and its association with allergic sensitization among selected children in Batangas
||This study determined whether geoheminthiasis can cause or prevent allergic sensitization by correlating positive helminth infection results of the children with serum total IgE level and screening test results for allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and food allergens. Stool samples of 50 children were qualitatively examined for the presence of helminth infection through modified Kato-Katz technique. They were also assessed for allergic diseases using the modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase I questionnaire. Fecalysis results were correlated with their serum total IgE (tlgE) levels and screening test results for allergic sensation to common aeroallergens and food allergens determined through ImmunoCAP system. Mixed infection of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found to be the most common (40%) followed by trichuriasis (34%) and ascariasis (26%). Atopic allergy to inhalants is prevalent in children under 10 years old. On the other hand, inchildren aged 1o years old and above, there were more negative Phadiatop results. It was revealed that the occurence of geohelmenthic infection and allergy may affect any child regradless of age and serum total IgE level does not considerably vary with age, geohelmenthiasis and presence of allergy. Hence, geohelmenthiasis does not play contributory nor inhibitory role in allergic sensitization as established by a 0.05 level of significance (p = ,0.05).
|ALLIUM CEPA (RED ONION); FLAVONOIDS
||BSMLS / 248/ 2013
||Dayot, Lorraine Bernadette M.; Castillo, Mark Jefferson M.; Chonkria, Samita C.; Perez, Arisa Joyce T.; Rosales, Kristine Bernadette T.; Villarin, Annelie R.
||Photoprotective potential of extract obtained from Allium cepa (red onion) against UVB-induced albino mice
||This study evaluated the photoprotective effect of Allium cepa (red onion) against UVB-induced albino mice. Lipid peroxidation assay for Malondialdehyde (MDA) and histopathologic study were conducted in order to determine the photoprotective potential of A. cepa skin extract. Phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids. The results show the damaging effect of UV-B on skin of the albino mice and the protective effect of A. cepa skin MDA level increases when UV-B dose was increased. Using ANOVA, the obtained p values were all grater than 0.05 level of significance showing that the treatments have similar photoprotective activity. Histopathologic results showed that the groups treated with 2%, 3% and 4% of the extract had very mild to moderate epidermal thickening, with cellular morphology almost similar to the unirradiated control group. Thus, A. cepa skin extract has a photoprotective potential sarting at 2% concentration as confirmed through histopathologic findings. However, its photoprotective activity does not exhibit a concentration-dependent activity as suggested by the MDA levels of the irradiated and unirradiated controls and different experimental groups.
|ALLIUM CEPA L. VAR. ASCALONICUM BACKER (ONION); ANGIOGENESIS
||BSMLS / 253/ 2013
||Castor, Aizelle Coleen A.; Aldovino, Reymark Allan M.; Dimaano, Geoffrey A.; Fernandex, Ma. Cristal S.; Magno, Clarice Monique D.
||Anti-angiogenic effect of flavonoid content of Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum Backer (onion) skin on chick chrioallantoic membrane
||This study was conducted to prove that the flavonoid content of A. cepa can inhibit angiogenesis and may be used for preventing cancer. Flavonoid content from onion skin was evaluated for its angiogenic inhibitory effect using shell-less chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The angiosuppressive effect of the extract was evaluated by counting the average number of branch points of the CAM on the eight day of incubation. Results showed well-developed and branched blood vessels in the negative control while in the treatment group, decreasing number of blood vessels were observed as the concentration of flavonoid content increases as also revealed in the visual assessment and photography results. Using Turkey HSD and Dunnett test, the angiogenic effect of flavonoid content of A. cepa on the proliferation of blood vessels to chicken embryos was proven to be statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between the negative control group and the treatments used. It showed that the greater concentration applied, the lesser the branched points observed. This proves that the flavonoid content of A. cepa skin has an anti-angiogenic effect; thus, it could be a potential agent against cancer, through the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation.
|AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS (URAY) ; GENTAMICIN; NEPHROPROTECTIVITY; NEPHROTOXICITY
||BSMLS/ 228/ 2012
||Arellano, Kenny Hubert M.; Areta, Venus Elaine C.; Abel, Krystel Apple A.; Atienza, Kathleen M.; Cleofe, Rachel Joy D.; Dalisay, Cyrene Andrea M.
||Nephroprotective effect of Amaranthus spinosus (Uray) leaves extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Spargue-Dawley rats
||Gentamicin (GM), an aminoglycoside, is commonly used for gram-negative bacterial infection. It is known to be potentially nephrotoxic in long term use. Numerous research studies shows that Uray (Amaranthus spinosus) has chemoprotective and hepatoprotective abilities primarily because of its antioxidant content. Flavonoids present in the plant might be capable in reducing the nephrotoxic effect if gentamicin treatment. This study was therefore designed to scientifically test the nephroprotective effects of Uray using Sprague-Dawley rats as models after 10 days of treatment. Amaranthus spinosus extract (ASE) at 40 mg/kg/d and 80 mg/kg/d have significantly decreased (p<0.05) the nephrotoxic effect of GM. It was revealed that both ASE concentrations have nephroprotective effect.
|ANEMIA; COFFEE BEAN ; CADMIUM CHLORIDE
||BSMLS / 241/ 2013
||Oabel, Niel Jayson B.; Almanzor, Vernice Jea M.; Caringal, Ma. Gaycele T.; Ebilane, June Claudine N.; Gallemit, Stephanie Marie S.; Toledo, Ailene B.; Reyes, Redncion B.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Protective influence of coffee bean crude extract on cadmium chloride-induced alterations in hematological parameters of Swiss Albino mice
||The study aimed to investigate the protective role of coffee bean extract on cadmium chloride-induced anemia by assessment of hematological parameters such as red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Morphological assessment of red blood cells was accomplished on the basis of RBC indices such as Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), and peripheral blood smear evaluation. The protective influence brought about by the pretreatment of the extracts can be utilized to develop a therapy of low cost and is readily accessible to Filipinos debilitated by anemia. It was concluded that the plant extract has the ability to protect the cells against the damaging effects brought about by cadmium chloride administration.
|ANTIHYPERCLICEMIC; BIGNAY (ANTIDESMA BUNIUS) HYPOGLYCEMIC; DIABETES
||BSMLS/ 205/ 2011
||Herrera, Sheanna Marie D.; Panopio, Aldrix M.; Pedrezuela, hyde Joan C.; Perez, Rhona F.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Antiglycemic Effect Of Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Phytochemicals In Sprague-Dawley Rats
||In this study, the antiglycemic effect of bignay was determined after 14 days of treatment. The extract of 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of bignay proved their glucose lowering activity on fasted non-diabetic and Alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, 600 mg/kg was more effectual and exhibited the same therapeutic outcome with glibenclamide. Therefore, the study shows that the extract of bignay (Antidesma bunius) containing phytochemicals has a promising effect on decreasing blood glucose level in diabetes as well as in the prevention of its occurrence.
|ANTIPARASITIC; BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. BOTRYTIS (CAULIFLOWER) ISOTHIOCYANATE; ASCARIS SUUM
||BSMLS/ 210/ 2012
||Derain, Rachelle G.; Aldovino, Mabelle R.; Holgado, ma. Cristina B.; Lescano, Joy Ever S.; Magbuhos, Arrian Marie S.; Villanueva, Jenessa Camille O.
||Parasitical Activity of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) on an Ascaridae Model
||Since ancient times up to present, herbal plants have been used in the treatment of various human diseases and infections. Ascariasis has been widely prevalent and remains a constant problem among humans especially in children. Parasitic worms or helminthes, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, is one of those organisms that live and feed off living hosts, receiving nourishment and protection while disrupting their host’s nutrient absorption, causing weakness and disease. This parasite is characteristically related to Ascaris suum which infects pigs and also humans. With this research determined the parasitical activity of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) against Ascaris suum as a model. Extracts from the plant were obtained and were used tested againts the test parasite in vitro. In addition, it was compared with pyrantel embonate solutions of different concentrations and was used as a standard. Results revealed the approximate lethal concentration of the plant at 0.00400g/ml. The median lethal concentration of the extract is less than 0.00800 g/ml with a mortality rate of 53.33 percent. Statistical analysis of the experimental data revealed that there is no significant difference between the parasiticidal effect of cauliflower extract and pyrantel embonate against A. suum indicating the feasibility of the said plant extract as an anti-parasitic drug.
|ASCARIS SUUM; ASCARIASIS; GEOHELMINTHE ; LAURIC ACID ; VIRGIN COCONUT OIL
||BSMLS/ 213/ 2012
||De las Alas, Joseph D.; Datinguinoo, Louie V.; Frane, jareshiah Riza C.; Perez, Shiela Marie T.; Pomar, Patricia Antonette E.; Portes, Sandra Kaye E.
||In Vitro Analysis of Lauric Acid and Virgin Coconut Oil Against Ascaridae Model
||Parasitic infection greatly affects human and animals irrespective of age, size and gender, causing physiological changes mainly due to poor personal hygeine. Ascaris lumbricoides is the primary geohelminthe that infects man which accounts for majority of billions of cases of parasitism worldwide. Similar to this, is the Ascaris suum, the major geohelminthe which infects the pigs and the humans. Differentiating these two is very difficult since they share the same characteristics. Since there are limited numbers of drugs for ascariasis, this present study tested the ascaricidal property of both lauric acid and virgin coconut oil. The maximum lethal concentration of lauric acid that killed the test parasite was 5% while the maximum concentration of virgin coconut oil was 10%. using probit Analysis, statistical results revealed that lauric acid has a higher anti-parasitic effect against A. suum over virgin coconut oil. However, it also revealed that the standard treatment, pyrantel embonate, is still superior over lauric acid. With these results. it is recommended that the synergistic relationship between lauric acid and pyrantel embonate be studied.
|AVERRHOA BILIMBI LINN. ; LIPID PEROXIDATION ; PHENOLICS ; UV LIGHT
||BSMLS/ 230/ 2012
||Agena, Precious Love A.; Albay, Coren Jane P.; Apusen, Celestine L.; Arago, Mary Rose M.; Catapang, Janina Camille E.; Siapco, Rheinmark Lloyd S.; Dumaoal, Mr. Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Dr. Caren R.
||Topical administration of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves crude extract prevents UVB-induced oxidative damage in Albino mice
||This study assessed photoprotective properties of crude extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves in the ultraviolet region (UV) (200-400mm). The crude extract of the plant was tested against UVB-induced oxidative damage in Albino mice. Biochemical assays such as lipid peroxidation together with histopathological examination were performed. The study revealed that the 4% topical extract treatment reduced the effect of UV light-induced photo-aging in mice skin by decreasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) level by up to 60% compared to an irradiated control group. Histopathological evaluation also indicated a photo-protective activity on the extract treated mice skin with minimal signs of histological change and mild dermatitis after UV exposure. Subacute moderated dermatitis is diagnosed in 3% of the treated group whereas 2% of the treated group showed chronic moderated dermatitis. Decreasing inflammatory condition was examined in increasing concentration of extract which showed strong-to-moderate absorption of UV radiation.
|AVERRHOA BILIMBI(KALAMIAS) ; TANNIN; WOUND HEALING
||BSMLS/ 256/ 2015
||Puertellano, Jemanica B.; Alvaro, Zoren B.; Cachola, Ma. Donna Mae B.; Laraquel, Marianne Louise F.; Garcia, Malakamassey C.; Ortega, jenny Rose C.; Umali, Zarah Joy A.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Wound healing activity of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Kalamias) hydromethanolic and tannin extract in alloxan-induced Sprague-Dawley rats
||Hydromethanolic and tannin extracts of dried fruit of A. bilimbi Linn. Were prepared with 10%, 20%, and 40% concentrations and were topically applied to the test group Sprague-Dawley rats. Results revealed that all concentrations of the ointment successfully hastened the contraction of the wound. Using ANOVA, significant differences exist between the test groups compared to the negative control with the lowest p-value of 0.00. This implies that a diabetic wound is incapable of healing without treatment. However, the statistical data revealed no significant difference between the test groups with varying concentrations and the positive control. Thus, doses of 10%, 20% and 40% tannin extract have the same effect with the standard drug in wound contraction rate. It was also found out that there us significant difference between the control group with Mupirocin and all the three doses of tannin extract with p-values of 0.9069, 0.8178 and 0.8539, respectively in terms of the period of epithelization. This delineates that tannin extract is better in the restoration of epithelial cells than the standard drug which is also supported by the histopathological results. An increased amount of fibroblasts and collagen fibers were evident in the test groups which suggests that A. bilimbi hydromethanolic and tannin extract contribute to the completion of wound healing. Thus, topical application of hydromethanolic and tannin extracts of A. bilimbi showed dose independent wound healing activity in diabetic rats.
|BAMBOO LEAF; CARDIOPROTECTION; ISOPROTERENOL, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
||BSMLS / 232/ 2013
||Rosales, Sarah Len O.; Anog, Buena Fe A.; Blanza, Rosmaine M. ; Cuartero, Mary Ann D.; Landicho, Ma. Chermie, Talledo, Erma Grace D.; Cabanela, Reby A.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Cardioprotective activity of Bambusa blumeana Schultes leaf crude extract against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in sprague-dawley rat
||This study was designed to investigate cardioprotective activity of Bambusa blumeana Schultes leaf crude extract against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in sprague-dawley rat . Rats were pretreated with leaf extracts and tocopherol daily for 21 days. After treatment, isoproterenol was injected to rats at 22nd and 23rd day to induce myocardial infarction. Cardioprotection was investigated by measuring the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase–MB together with hispathologic techniques. This study revealed that at 200 mg/kg body weight of B. blumeana leaf crude extract exhibited its carsioprotective effect but with greater effect in reducing the level of cardiac enzyme CK-MB, AST and LDH upon increasing concentration of 300 mg/kg and 400mg/kg oral treatment. The results were confirmed by histopathological evidences and showed decreasing inflammatory condition upon increasing concentrations of extract which revealed severe-to-mild myocardial degeneration and necrosis.
|BANANA PEEL; MICROBIAL STAINS
||Castillo, Liwanag M.; Clemino, Sarah Suzaine C.; Geron, Bernice C.; Guico, Liza C.
||Banana (Musa Paradisiaca) peel as an alternative culture medium for the isolation of selected microbial strains
||This study is focusing on researches in line with conservation of banana peels, testing its suitability as culture medium for growth of certain microorganisms. With these researches, it aims to establish a strong foundation in the usefulness of waste banana peel and potentially make an inexpensive and efficient alternative culture media. It will take away the burden and stress imposed on our dwindling environment, especially against non-effective disposal system of the country. The study will also support and encourage local banana breeders to produce more for local and foreign market, placing the Philippines back in the forefront of the world banana industry. It is in this premise that the reserchers opted to study the possibility of using banana peel as an alternatice culture medium. To determine the culture characteristics, researchers tested it in fresh banana peel and dried banana peel media. In fresh banana peel agar, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans produced a growth, however these four microogranisms did not produce any growth in the dried banana peel agar. The growth of the microbial strains in the banana peel agar was compared to the growth of the microbial strains in TSA as a standard using the aerobic count (APC) method.
|BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS; CITRUS MICROCARPA (CALAMANSI); CHROMOLAENAODORATA (HAGONOY); NEPHELIUMAPPACEUM (RAMBUTAN); JASMINUMSAMBAC (SAMPAGUITA
||BSMLS/ 227/ 2012
||De Villa, Lee Marvin C.; Abantes, Mary Joy A.; Asi, Merlina C.; Balmeo, Noelyn Joy C.; Bustillo, Alyssa Monique D.; Calangi, Eunice M.; Cruzado, Lhuvie Jean R.
||Larvicidal activity of four Philippine plants against Dengue virus vector, Aedesaegypti(Linn.)
||Bioactive compounds, such as the plant-derived allelochemicals, are of growing interest to the scientific community due to their known toxiicity against several obnoxious vectors of pervasive disiease like dengue and malaria. Moreover, the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides has diverted the interest of researchers towards insecticides of plant origin Hence, four Philippines plant species, Citrus microcarpa(Calamansi), Chromolaenaodorata (Hagono y), Nepheluimlappaceum(Rambutan), and Jasminumsambac (Sampaguita) of the respective plant families Rutaceae, Asteriaceae, Sapindaceae and Oleaceae were evaluated of their larvicidal activities. The secondary metabolites tannin and citrus, both of which have shown larvicidal and insecticidal activities, have been found in plant families Spaindaceae and Rutaceae. Likewise, Jasminumsambacand Chromolaenaodorata have been reported in the literature to contain terpenoids and organophosphates, two major constituents of agricultural pesticides both recognized for the potency. The larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts in three concentrations (100, 200, 500ppm) from four plants were evaluated against third instar larvae of dengue mosquito, Aedesaegypti in the laboratory. Their activities were compared with black pepper, Piper nigrum (positive control) and the untreated control (distilled water and DMSO). Among the plants bioassayed, the 500 ppm ethanolic extract from C. microcarpa provided 24-hr mortality of 80%, which is slightly lower than 100% mortality obtained in black pepper. Multiple regression analysos also revealed statistically significant relationship (p-value <0.05) between concentration of the extracts of four plants and mortality rate. Linearity between larval mortality and exposure time is most significant at 500 ppm concentration with a fitted regression model: % mortality =16.16x – 25.6 X time interval (R2 = 0.944). Endpoint analysis of log-probit transformed curve of Citrus microcarpa indicates LC50 and LC90 of 451 and 628 mg/l (500 ppm) respectively. Since C. microcarpa is much cheaper than black pepper, more in depth study should done in enhancing its activity by slightly increasing its concentration or through the addition of synergist and combination with other potent botanical insecticides. Moreover, the use of C. microcarpa is sage to humans and other non-target organisms and is an environment method of controlling dengue mosquito wrigglers.
|BLOOD COMPONENTS; BLOOD BANK CENTER ; BLOOD UTILIZATION
||BSMLS/ 224/ 2012
||Cadano, Khareen M.; Montalbo, Catherine A.; Santoyo, Maureen Viel C.; Verdadero, Veronica D.; Vidal, Israel E.
||Blood requisition and utilization in tertiary hospital-based blood bank centers in Batangas, Philippines: A Three-Year Review
|| This is study is a descriptive qualitative type of research. Tertiary hospitals were selected to participate in the study. Data of blood components requested and transfused from 2009 to 2011 were gathered from the records of their blood bank/center. The study identified the most commonly requested and transfused blood components including its indications. Through the frequency and percentage distribution, male patients with O positive blood type mostly requested for one unit packed red blood cells. in contrary with the other studies, internal medicine is the department which obtained the most number of requests resulting to predominating value for elderly patients.
|BLOOD TRANSFUSION; BLOOD GROUP DISTRIBUTION ; BLOOD BANK
||BSMLS/ 229/ 2012
||Culla, Arvin Jose D.; Anorico, Ma. Rica C.; Axalan, Jean Maristela C.; Bagui, Robertson Jireh R.; Blanco, Maria Liza B.; Daño, Mary Rose P.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Frequency distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group Systems among blood donors in selected Blood Banks in Batangas, Philippines
||The ABO and Rhesus blood group are regarded as the most significant blood groups in humans due to their importance and association with hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and blood transfusion. Besides from being essential in blood trasnfusion and organ transplantation, blood group antigens can also be harnessed in forensic pathology, anthropology, genetic search and of tracing human ancestral origins. The study determined the frequency distribution of 580 blood donors in Batangas, as to ABO and Rh blood group systems using the tube method. The distribution was then correlated to the donor’s profile. Blood type is the most common blood type with type AB as the least. The result showed a pattern of O>B>A>AB with percentage distribution of 42.8%, 27.1% 24.8% and 5.3% respectively. Of the 580 samples, 99.1% (575) are Rhesus positive with the remaining 0.9% (5) as Rhesus negative. Most of the blood donors are males (78.8%) followed by females (21.2%). Many of donors as the age cap increases was observed. Only 0.3% (2/580) has undergone blood transfusion.
|BLOOD; BLOOD CULTURE SYSTEMS ; BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS
||BSMLS/ 222/ 2012
||Tadiosa, John Patrick B.; Muncada, Princess Ann J.; Panopio, Kristine May M.; Remo, Erika Joie A.; Vidal, Ishmael; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Comparative Study of BACTEC Culture Vial and Conventional Brain Heart Infusion Broth in the Detection of the Most Commonly Isolated Blood Pathogens
||The study utilized blood samples collected from the selected hospitals. The two blood culture systems, BACTEC Culture Vial and conventional Brain Heart Infusion Broth were compared as to the presence of bacterial growth and turnaround time from 45 cultures. Positive cultures obtained from BACTEC method (28.9%) and conventional method (22.2%) resulted to a percentage difference of -6.7%. Though not statiscally significant, BACTEC method yielded more organisms as compared to conventional method. In terms of turnarond time, BACTEC showed statistically significant earlier turnaround time with a mean of 4.36 days than conventional method with a mean of 7.02 days. Overall, BACTEC blood culture system is comparable to the conventional method in terms of the number and species of microorganisms isolated; however, it showed more rapid detection of microorganisms.
|BLOOD-ENRICHED AGAR; RED CELL SUSPENSION
||BSMLS/ 201 / 2010
||Aro, Richelle S.; Caringal, Ma. Charisma S.; Castillo, Melvin M.; Llanes, Darwin A.; Sumaray, karen D.
||Preparation of blood-enriched Agar with the use of red cell suspension
||This study determines the microbial growth characteristics of the test isolates in washed expired human blood in terms of cultural characteristics and hemolytic patterns. It also determines if there is a significant difference in the microbial growth characteristics of the test isolates in washed expired human blood as compared to sheep blood; unwashed fresh human blood; unwashed expired human and washed fresh human blood. The study also determines the stability of the washed blood in culture media in terms of duration of storage. The results shows that expired human blood with washing improves the morphologic and hemolytic pattern of Staphylococcus aureus. This washing of blood has no effect on Staphylococcus epidermis because it is a gamma hemolytic bacterium. Washing removes interferences for microbial growth. It is supported by the result obtained in this study. Both unwashed expired and fresh human blood expresses gamma hemolysis due to the interferences still present in them. Washed expired human blood produce beta hemolysis due to the removal of interferences plus the low ATP level that indicates low red blood cell survival, which means easy hemolysis for the red cells. Washed fresh human blood produce a partial beta hemolysis due to the removal of interferences but find it hard to make a full beta hemolysis due to high ATP levels that leaves the red blood cell survival higher. Washed expired human blood can be stored for seven days but still can be used to grow microbial culture. It is recommended to compare more clinical isolates that inhibits beta hemolysis in sheep’s blood agar to show that washed expired blood is applicable to all beta hemolytic blood cultures. Extend the stability testing to know when the washed expired human blood agar wil fail to grow microbial colonies. Determine the microbial yield using plate count methods in the different types of blood used in the culture media and add other factors for the test for the stability.
|CAESALPINIIS PULCHERRIMA (CABALLERO)
||BSMLS/ 211/ 2012
||Untalan, Lynn V.; Alay, Rey Adrian C.; Buño, Romarzen C.; Geron, Rhea G.; Sangalang, Hazel Joy A., Solis, Angelica M.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Hypolipidemic potential of ethanolic flower extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. (Caballerro) in hyperlipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats
||The study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Caesalpinia pulcherrima ethanolic flower extract in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats for 37 days to evaluate its antihyperlipidemic activity. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. Booth 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg proved a constant lipid lowering activity on fasted hyperlipidemic rats. Moreover 200 mg/kg is most efficient in decreasing triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and enhancing density lipoprotein cholesterol; while 400 mg/kg is effective in lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Consequently, both 200 and 400 mg/kg Caesalpinia pulcherrima flower extract are more effective in lowering elevated lipid levels and are comparable to the effects of atorvastatin. The findings of the study demonstrate that the flower extracts of Caesalpinia pulcerrima (Caballero) possess a promising hypolipidemic property.
|CALUMPANG RIVER; BACTERIOPHAGE; ESCHERICHIA COLI
||BSMLS / 246/ 2013
||Javier, Anjella A.; Amorado, Aile Louise T.; Catilo, Ma. Kristel Irish C.; Catapang, Mariel B.; Dagli, Jennifer Ann T.; Vergara, Althessa Belle P.; Magbojos, Carina R.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Isolated Bacteriophage from Calumpang River as an inhibitor of Escherichia coli
||This study was done to contribute to the advancement of phage therapy in the filed of microbiology. It also aimed to establish new understanding of cocktail of bacteriophage from Calumpang River as tested it bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Samples throughout the research were collected from heavily contaminated Calumpang River which has been identified to harbor variuos coliforms in the previous studies. From the three selected sampling sites, qualitative test for the presence of cocktail of bacteriophage was done through double agar overlay method. Isolated samples were negatively stained and were reported to contain only bacili with no presence of bacteriophage nor any evidence of bacterial lysis which is the key phenomenon of bacterial phage invasion. It was concluded in this study that there is no bacteriophage isolated from Calumpang River.
|CALUMPANG RIVER; TOTAL COLIFORM; FECAL COLIFORM
||BSMLS/ 226/ 2013
||Villanueva, Jeneva D.; Paala, Abbe Louise M.; Ringel, Mabelle M.; Samon, Maria Monica Villanueva, Rubylyn
||Bacteriological assessment of Calumpang River in Batangas City, Philippines
||Rivers are important to society, providing water for consumption, agriculture and carrying away human wastes. The bacteriological assessment of water is important in pollution studies, as it is a direct measurement of detrimental effect of toxic waste on human health. The bacteriological water quality of calumpang River was assessed using the multiple-tube fermentation technique to count total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS). Sampling was conducted to use bacterial densities to evaluate the microbial quality and to assess the sanitary condition of Calumpang River which was subdivided into three stations namely Brgy. Malitam (1), Calumpang River to Bridge of Promise (2) and Tinga, Lbac (3). This body of water exhibited high concentrations of TC, FC and FS which indicates a significant fecal contaminations originating from humans or other warm-blooded animals. The result obtained from all of the parameters exceeded the reference limit of water quality guidelines and general effluent standards based on DENR Administrativr Order of 2008. FC/FS ratio was used to identify source of fecal contamination. FC/FS ratio result in Station 1 and 2 were 0.74 and 3.67 respectively, indicating mixed animal and human fecal contamination while in Station 3 was 4.76, designating a human fecal contamination. Such results revealed that fecal and coliform pollution were widely distributed in the selected areas of Calumpang River making it unsuitable, unsafe and not acceptable for human use or primary cantact and there may be a potential risk of infection for users of water from Calumpang River.
|CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS (SILING LABUYO); HEPATOPROTECTIVE ; ISONIAZID; RIFAMPICIN
||BSMLS / 249/ 2013
||Tamayo, Angeli B.; Abanes, Mark Angelo D.; Biscocho, Carl Justine D.; Comia, Nilbert Joie A.; Marasigan, Nickie D.; Sabanal, Hennessey M.; Cabanela, Reby A.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Hepatoprotective activity of methanolos extract of Capsicum frutescens (siling labuyo) against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity Sprague-Dawley rats
||This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of C. frutescens leaves. It determined the effective dose of methanolic extract and at which does will it be toxic. Also the study evaluated the histopathological morphology of the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats after the administration of the plant extract. Extract of Capsicum frutescens was obtained through methanolic extraction which yielded 12.6%. Phytochamical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped accordingly and were given saline (Group i), inducing agent (isoniazid and rifampicin) (Group II), and 100 mg/kg (Group III and 200 mg/kg C frutescens (Group IV). The LD50 of the extract in mice was estimated to be 190 mg/kg. After 14 days of treatment, results showed that inducing agents can raise the liver enzymes that show hepatoxicity, while C. frutescens extract can lower the liver enzymes. Futhermore, 100 mg/kg C. frutescens extract has significant effect on AST and ALT levels (p=0.006) since it renders lower AST and ALT levels compared to 200 mg/kg C. frutescens extract. Thus, 100 mg/kg of C. frutescens extract is a therapeutic agent against hepatotoxicity. However, the biochemical results were not supported in the histopathological findings.
|CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA); ACUTE PANCREATITIS
||BSMLS / 252/ 2013
||Grantoza, Renz Marlo A.; Barbosa, Mary Joyce C. ; Canonizado, Ana Jesusa Q.; Cantos, Kyrrie Aeriells Nadine M. ; De Mesa, Rey Vincent De Mesa; Landicho, Janel Ross V.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Cabanela, Reby A.
||Protective effect of Carica papaya (papaya) in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in Sprague Dawley rats
||In this study, the effects of papain from unripe C. papaya fruit extract in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in Spraguw Dawley rats were determined. Four groups of rat models were administered with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg and were subjectedted to biochemical and histopathologic examinations. The lethal dose of papain was 400 mg/kg. Using Turkey and Dunnett tests, the obtained p-values (P=0.000) for all the groups were highly significant; thus the supporting the biochemical assay results. Histopathological findings proved that only the 200mg/kg papain has protective activity against caerulin-induced pancreatitis since degenerative changes and apoptotoc effect were observed in the group treated with 100 mg/kg papain. Therefore, papain from unripe C. papaya extract is evident to produce a protective effect against acute pancreatitis at 200 mg/kg concentration. Thus, C. papaya can be an alternative agent to the expensive treatment for acute pancreatitis.
|DIPLAZIUM ESCULENTUM; ANEMIA; PHENYLHYDRAZINE
||BSMLS/ 254/ 2014
||Agustin, Mark Kevin; Balines, Marijoe; Bitong, Keen Clark; Godoy, Jan Lorenzo
||Effect of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (Paco) extract against phenylhydrazine-induced anemia on Sprague-dawley rats
||Studies show that the leaf extract of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw contains flavonoids and other polyphenols which may be used against many diseases. In this study, the effect of D. esculentum extract against phenylhyrazine-induced anemia on Sprague Dawley rast was determined. Hematologic parameters and morphological study of the blood cells were conducted to assess the activity of the extract against phenylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress. The lethal dose of the extract was found out to be greater than 225 mg/kg. Animal treated with only phenylhydrazine revealed a marked decline in red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration, and hemtocrit level. On the other hand, the experimental group treated the D. esculentum crude extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight showed protection against the phenylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.Morphological evaluations of the red blood cells of these animals through peripheral blood smeat evaluation revealed recovery to hemolytic anemia by presence of normal shaped red blood cells after twelve day recovery period. In conclusion, the plant extract has the ability to protect the cells against the damaging effect brought about by phenylhydrazine administration.
|FICUS NOTA; MRSA; ANTIBACTERIAL ; BRINE SHRIMP
||BSMLS/ 225/ 2012
||Villanueva, Jay Gareth L.; Punzalan, Khristine C.; Ramirez, Irene Rizza H.; Sadiasa, Jerlyn G.; Senete, Charisse T.
||Phytochemical screening, anti-staphylococcal activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus Nota (Tibig) Linn
||In the developing countries the treatment of infectious diseases is complicated due to increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The importance of medicinal plants and traditional health system in solving the health care problems has gained an increasing attention. Herbal medicines have received great interest as an alternative to clinical therapy. The increase in the number of users as opposed to the scarcity of scientific evidences on the safety of medical plants, have raised concerns regarding the toxicity and detrimental effects of these remedies. Ficus family comprises a number of species that yield secondary metabolites that have shown antibacterial activity. However, scientific studies regarding potential antimicrobial activity of F.nota are lacking. As such, methalonic leaf extract of F. nota was examined for its anti-staphylococcal activity using agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of the extract were also determined. For toxicity assay, brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanol extracts of F. nota leaves showed the presence of saponins, tannis, and flavonoids. The result shows that the leaf extract was partially active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with 13.22mm mean zone of inhibition but was inactive against MRSA clinica isolate. The MIC value of methanolic extract against S.aureus was 125ug/ml and with MBC above 2000ug/ml indicating an anti-bactericidal activity. The LC50 value of standard was 824µg/ml using brine shrimp lethality assay. Plant extract showed potential antibacterial activity agaist S.aureus but not with MRSA and was found to be nontoxic.
|HEPATOTOXICITY; PHYTIC ACID; ACETAMINOPHEN; RICE BRAN ; LIVER DAMAGE
||BSMLS/ 258/ 2015
||Marundan, Sharmane R.; Abel, Carmela A.; Bobadilla, marielle M.; Garcia, Gellie B.; Megallon, Christine Diane A.; Politico, Neal Loreyn T.; Reyes, Redencion B.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Rice Bran RC 218 Phytic Acid Against Acetaminophen Induced Liver Damage in Sprague Dawley Rats
||The objective of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective ability of phytic acid from rice bran, obtained through the extraction and purification method described by Canan et al. against acetaminopheninduced hepatoxicity in five groups of Sprague Dawley rats. Group I served as a control, Group II as a toxin control, Group III and IV with pretreated PA of different concentration (400 and 600 mg/kg, bz) and Group V as standard drug treatment. Serum determinations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutathione level were measured. Rats were sacrificed for histopathological study of the liver. Pretreatment of rats with PA did not effectively normalize or improve AST/ALT and GSH levels. However, histopathologic study of the liver with the treatment group showed slight improvement as compared to the damaged liver of the toxin control. The results showed that PA was not effective to prevent hepatotoxicity induced by APAP.
|HYPERLIPIDEMIA; LIPID; MANGROVE
||BSMLS/ 217/ 2012
||Monserrat, Joshua I.; Guong, Leah M.; Peradilla, Jennifer E.; Petrasanta, Sheila Marie D.; Valencis, Den Nise Anne L.; Villavicencio, Carla C.
||Effect of Mangrove leaf (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk) methanolic extracts on the serum lipid level and on gross morphology of vital organs of hyperlipidemic rats
||The researchers seek to find alternative anti-hyperlipidemia drugs, preferably with the use of mangrove extract. This experiment will be carried out on experimental rats which will be put on risk of having hperlipidemia and will then be given mangrove plant extracts. Hyperlipidemia is induced by the ingestion of cholesterol dissolved in coconut oil. Assessment of lipid profile will be done by measuring low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG), and cholesterol level. Gross morphology of some vital organs particularly the liver is done to assess if there are adverse effect of the extract and of the commercial drug to the rat. By comparison of the total mean of the lipid profile of all groups, mangrove extracts are proven to be an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent. Low dose extract (100 mg/kg) and 200 mg/kg) is more efficient in lowering the lipid profile of rats compared to that of the high dose extract (400 mg/kg). And through assessment of gross morphology of liver, rats who have received Atorvastatin, have developed hepatomegaly while no significant change is observed to the rats who have received mangrove extracts.
|IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (COGON GRASS); KIDNEY FAILURE
||BSMLS / 240/ 2013
||Aguirre, Mariezthel S.; Amponin, Martin Jayson S.; Atienza, Kia Jaika G.; Austria, Maria Katrina A.; Dimaculangan, Kenneth M.; Mendoza, Amielle Ann L.; Dumaoal, Shane Oliver R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Nephroprotective activity of Imperata cylindrica (Cogon Grass) ethanolic root extract in gentamicin-induced renal damage in Sprague-Dawley Rats
||This study was undertaken to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica “cogon grass” roots, which contains the said constituents using rats. Based on the results, it was concluded that the ethanolic root extract of Imperata cylindrica does not produce nephroprotective but rather a nephrotherapeutic activity against renal damage without any signs of toxicity caused by gentamicin. Both doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, have the same therapeutic effect on the kidneys since no significant difference exists between them .
|INDIAN TREE, CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
||BSMLS/ 214/ 2012
||Tualla, Jacquelyn D.; Floren, Mary Grace B.; Matibag, Jeanette H.; Silva, Amabelle G.; Supillo,Vanessa G.
||Action of Polyalthia longifolia chinensis Benth. & Hook (Indian Tree) ethanolic crude extract on selected clinical isolates determined by time-kill, lysis, electron microscopy and acute toxicity of Guppies
||This study determined the kill rate and cell lytic effect of Indian tree ethanolic crude extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli based on time-kill approach and measuring its bacteriolytic effect. Phytochemical studies of the plant revealed presence of sterols and glycosides which have been reported to have antimicrobial action. Results of time-kill studies revealed that 50% concentration of the extract killed S. aureus within 2hrs while the MIC concentration of 25% killed the same organism within 6hrs. The concentrations of 20% and 40% ethanolic extract killed E. coli after 6hrs of bacterial inoculation. The higher concentration of the extract showed greater activity against the organism. Lytic potential was observed starting at 60 minutes conact time with the plant extract with the largest loss of optical density between 120 and 390 minutes. Scanning electron microscopy at 10,000 magnification of E. coli with 20% and 40% concentrations of the extract showed cell shrinkages and lysis that were not seen in untreated cells. Most cell destruction occured in the 40% concentration of the plant extract. The extract also showed an acute toxicity on living cells at a concentration higher than 0.005% by observing its effects on guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Results of the study indicate the potential of the plant extract as an antimicrobial agent particulary for topical application.
|INTERNSHIP PROGRAM; MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE–CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENT
||BSMLS/ 216/ 2012
||Lumanglas, Kevin Roi L.; Calingasan, Katreen A.; Divino, Roxanne S.; Guico, Pearl Janine P.; Montalbo, Glenn S.; Pornobe, Jhejiel M.
||The Six-month Training Internship Program for Medical Laboratory Science Education: A Basis for Curricular Reform
||In 2006, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) released CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 14 which changed the duration of internship program to six months as opposed to the previous memorandum order, CMO no. 27 s. 1998 which required a one-year internship program for Medical Laboratory Science students. Senior students of the Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas and chief medical technologists (SMT’s) / medical laboratory staff were surveyed about their perception on the objectives, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the said program. Results show that the objectives were achieved even if the length of the duration is shortened. By looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and the threats, results show that the CMT’s preferred the one-year over six-month and that most of the students preferred the 6-month internship although there are still who choose the 1-year. This study can be used as a basis for a curricular reform by assessing the different parameters that were identified in order to enhance further the 6-month internship program in producing globally competitive medical laboratory scientists.
|IPOMEA BATATAS; COAGULATION DISORDERS ; PLATELET
||BSMLS/ 212/ 2012
||Cepillo, Airene B.; Alegria, Karen G.; Landicho, Evelyn P.; Ochea, Marvin D.; Pawang, Rashed I.; Samson, Katherine June E.
||Comparative Hemostatic activity of Sweet Potato leaf (Ipomea batatas L.) aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts in New Zealand white rabbits
||The present study was therefore designed to scientifically test and compare the hemostatic activity of sweet potato leaf aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts primarily on platelet count, clotting time and prothrombrin time using New Zealand White rabbits as models after 10 days of treatment. Both extracts at 150 mg/kg have significantly increased (p < 0.05) the platelet count and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the clotting time and prothrombrin time. It was revealed that both crude leaf extracts of Ipomea batatas L. have a good hemostatic activity with aqueous extract the most promising one based on the total mean value and possibly interact with both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The results obtained could be of value in the prevention of bleeding tendencies and also provide a rationale for ethnotherapeutic indication of the plant. Moreover, absence of adverse and death following oral administration of both extracts at doses of 300, 600 and 2000 mg/kg in rabbits suggest that the plant preparation are acutely non-toxic.
|IPOMOEA BATATAS (SWEET POTATO); PHOTOPROTECTIVE; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
||BSMLS / 250/ 2013
||Sulit, Baby Caroline J.; Berberabe, Jayzelle Anne C.; De Chavez, Janice C.; De Leon, Christine Joy O.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Protective capacity of Ipomoea batatas (Sweet Potato) methenolic crudew leaf extract against UV-exposed Swiss Albino mice
||This study aimed to determine if Ipomoea batatas crude leaf extract has photoprotective capacity to UV-exposed skin. Lic extraction was perfomed . Methanolic extraction was performed to prepare 2%, 3% and 4% concentrations of I. batatas crude leaf extract. Phytochemical analysis was done to determine polyphenols primarily the tannins using ferric chloride test that resulted to bluisk-black color. The extract prepared was topically administered to the test group Swiss Albino mice. Along with lipid peroxidation assay, histopathological evaluation was performed. The Lipid peroxidation results revealed that the highest absorbance in each group was seen during the third day of exposure and the lowest on the 7th day. It was also observed that there was a minimum absorbance of lipid peroxides in the group that received 4% treatment showing the least concentration level. The statistical results showed that there is no significant difference noted with the treated groups. This indicates that the photoprotective effect of the I. batatas did not exhibit concentration-dependent manner. Histopathological finding revealed the evident damage due to radiation that was observed in the irradiated group and the groups with 2% and 3% treatment. On the other hand, the skin of the mice treated with 4% I. batatas crude leaf extract resulted to intact vessels with no inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis, edems and other changes similar with the non-irradiated control group. This shows the photoprotective activity of I. batatas at 4% concentration against the UV radiation; thus it can be a potantial candidate against photo-oxidation.
|JATHROPA CURCAS; ANTIBACTERIAL; FIXED OIL
||BSMLS/ 218/ 2012
||Evangelista, Karen D.; Diña, Valerie C.; Evangelista, Sharmaine D.; Ferrancullo, Jhoanne B.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R; Magbojos Carina R.
||In vitro activity of Jathropa curcas (physic nut) seed fixed oil against selected bacterial isolates
||The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant by means of its fixed oil. Previous studies have claimed the effectual antimicrobial activity of J. curcas using the leaves and stem bark extracts. This study utilized the seed’s fixed oil in the assessment of its antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion method. A 100mg/mL concentration of stock solution of the oil was prepared by dissolving 10 mL of the oil chloroform. The results revealed that the fixed oil cannot inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis.
|LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (BANABA); TANNIN; ANTIBACTERIAL
||BSMLS/ 221/ 2012
||Gallarda, Gian carlo S.; Fulgencio, Manilyn M.; Garcia, Clarice Cathe G.; Gunio, Ma. Rowena L.; Ilao, Rosely M.; Matira, Jennica Kaye A.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Antibacterial Activity of Langerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) Leaf Extract
||Medicinal plants have been an important therapeutic aid for treating the disease of humankind. Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) belonging to the family of Lythraceae is a tropical plant found in many parts of Southeast Asia including Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Southern China. The leaves of this plant are used as purgative, deobstructive and diuretic. Tannins, one of the compinents of this plant shown to have antiviral, antiviral, antibacterial and antiparasitic effects. Extraction using ethanol was obtained in the leaf of the plant. Phytochemical screening was done to detect the presence of tannins. Disc diffusion method was used for the antibacterial test. The extract was also subjected to minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations together with its biological stability in terms of pH and temperature. Banaba leaf extracts were proven to have tannins. Using the disc diffusion method, the leaf extract was found active against Staphylococcus aureus showing zone of inhibition of 10 mm (partially active) and inactive against Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC and MBC of the leaf extract for S. aureus were 312.5 µg/mL and 2500 µg/mL respectively. Leaf extract possessed potential antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The banaba leaf extract was stable at varying pH and temperature.
|LEAD; BLOOD LEAD LEVELS
||BSMLS/ 223/ 2012
||Quimio, Djanico Bianco S.; Mulambo, Miyoba; Seat, Reginee Marie G.; Ticsay, Jessica Elsa L.; Umali, Shermy M.; Dumaoal, Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Renal function and blood lead levels of selected refilling station employees in Batangas City
||Lead is a metal that is useful in paint and petrochemical industries. Lead affects the normal functioning of many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, reproductive and nervous systems. It is potentially hazardous to humans when inhaled or ingested. Most studies focused on the neurological effects of lead particularly on IQ among children. However, its effect on renal function upon acute exposure to high lead levels of chronic occupational exposure. Lead is said to be carcinogenic to kidneys especially in cases wherein there is prolonged lead exposure. This study focused on the renal effects of lead of refilling station employees such as fuel attendants since occupational lead exposure is inevitable. Blood lead levels of such employees were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and the result were correlated to their blood urea nitrogen and creatinine to assess their kidney function. The findings of the study showed that there is no significant relationship between the blood lead level and renal function. However the use of personal protective gears is still a must to avoid other adverse effect of lead.
|LUFFA ACUTANGULA (PATOLA); H ANTIGEN; PECTIN
||BSMLS / 238/ 2013
||Borja, Cerr Jeoffrey D.; Dominguez, Lochelle Mannah R.; Inciong, Patricia Mara K.; Mendoza, Eldrick R.; Wijetunge, Rissalyn Yvonne P.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Anti-H activity of Luffa acutangula (Patola) on Type O blood group
||This study was performed to confirm the presence of H-antigen binding proteins in Luffa acutangula (patola), which can be used in identifying persons having said antigen. The lectin extracted from Luffa acutangula was processed through ethanolic extraction. The extract was tested against 390 “O Positive” blood segments prepared as 2-3% red cell suspension using different hemagglutination techniques. The agglutination was graded accordingly. Results showed no visible and microscopic agglutination on any of the dilution used. No statistical analysis was done since the results revealed negative. It was concluded that L. acutangula has no anti-H activity when tested on type O blood group.
|LUNG CANCER; RESVERATROL; EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG)
||BSMLS / 237/ 2013
||Condaya, Maria Joy Norilei B.; Alamano, Mary Rose C.; Catapang, Janela Thea G.; Delen, Monariza A.; Lacsamana, Precious M.
||Epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol against benzo (a) pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley Rats
||The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether EGCG, in combination with resreatrol, will be able to modulate the genotoxicity caused by benzo(a)pyrene in lung carcinogenesis. B(a)p was used and introduced through intraperitoneal application to evaluate whether resveratrol in combination with EGCG possess a good synergistic effect against immunotoxic damage. Experiment shows that B(a)p failed to induce cancer on the rats. Administration with B(a)p only increased the susceptibility of the animals to pathogens resulting in chronic murine pneumonia (CMP). EGCG was observed to have immunoregulatory property as it prevented the development of pulmonary lesions as shown in the histopathological results. It also has anti-obesity property since significant reductions in weight were seen in rats treated with the said polyphenol. Resveratrol, on the other hand, showed poor lung protective effects for moderate alveolar wall thickening; mild lymphoid hyperplasia and slight alveolar hemorrhage were still seen in the lung histology. Combinatory therapy of the two polyphenols showed mild protective effects against immunotoxicity, therefore indicating that EGCG is better used solely as an immunoregulatory agent.
|MAHOGANY; ANGIOGENESIS; CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE
||BSMLS / 231/ 2013
||Jayag, Kristell P.; Aala, Ana Marie T.; Abarintos, Ayssa Dianne M.; Cruzat, Rosette H.; Custodio, Jomar Klee Z.; Cabanela, Reby A., Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Potential anti-angiogenic activity of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) bark methanolic extract using duck in ovo choriollantoic membrane assay
||This study evaluated the angiosuppressive activity of mahogany bark methanolic extract using the choriollantoic membrane (CAM) assay in duck’s embryos. Phytochemical screening of the mahogany bark revealed the presence of components possessing such properties. Seventy one day old duck eggs were used in the study. The set-ups were composed of an untreated group, a positive control (Retin A cream), negative control (distilled water) and mahogany bark extracts in various concentrations. The different concentrations of the extracts were applied on the tenth day of incubation. The anti-angiogenic effect of extract was evaluated by taking the average number of branch points in the chorioallantoic membrane. This was determined on the 12th day of incubation. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc analysis using Turkey method were utilized for significant anti-angiogenic activity and pair-wise comparison among the treatments. Results showed that angiogenesis was retained in the untreated and negative control, while angiogenesis was significantly reduced with the treatment of the bark extracts. It was supported by the statistical analysis that there was a significant difference on the anti-angiogenic effect of mahogany extract on the vascularization if the duck embryos. A significant difference was observed between the untreated, control groups and among the treatments used. It revealed that the greater the dosage, the lesser the branch points observed and counted. The extract with 100% concentration was proven to be the most effective. These findings of the study indicated that S. macrophylla King bark extract might had a promising potential against cancer through inhibition of angiogenesis.
|MIMOSA PUDICA (MAKAHIYA); NEPHROPROTECTIVE; DRUG TOXICITY
||BSMLS / 236/ 2013
||Abanador, Raiza T.; Atienza, Raym Eunice Dianne M.; Datinguinoo, Aira Ericka D.; Medina, Marianthy M.; Panganiban, Rica Mae C.
||Nephroprotective activity of Mimosa pudica Linn. against acetaminophen – induced renal damage in Sprague Dawley rats
||This study was designed to determine the nephroprotective activity of Mimosa pudica Linn. against acetaminophen or paracetamol. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. There were no apparent lesions seen on the histopathological results even with the administration of APAP (PCM). However, it has been determined that the administration of the aqueous extract of the said plant demonstrated vascular hyperemia. This reveals that Mimosa pudica Linn. is a potential nephroprotective agent at 200 mg/kg dosage against acetaminophen-induced kidney damage.
|MORINDA CITRIFOLIA (NONI FRUIT) ; DYSLIPIDEMIA
||BSMLS/ 208/ 2011
||Holgado, Reah G.; Lopez, Hayzee Nikki A.; Rodriguez, Jenifer M.; Trinidad, Charmain D.; Velasquez, Jobelle A.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit powder in the lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats
||This study determined the effects of noni fruit powder in the lipid profile cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TAG) of dyslipemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Sprague-Dawley rats with an initial weight of 276.8 ±2.42 g were grouped as positive group (treated with lipid lowering supplements), test group (treated with noni fruit powder) and negative group (normal diet). Dyslipemic Sprague-Dawley rats were studied within 7 weeks, measuring its serum lipid level 27 days after high fat diet and its lipid concentrations 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the administration of 100 mg noni fruit powder and Atorvastatin as control subsequent to high fat diet. The administration of 100 mg of noni fruit powder for 4 week duration lowered the lipid profile of the laboratory animals in terms of cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL with a mean difference of ±32.93. Furthermore, the effect of 100 mg noni fruit powder has no significant difference on the effect of <0.05. The lipid lowering effect of 100 mg of noni fruit powder in terms of cholesterol, HDL and TAG is similar to the effect of 10 mg Atorvastatin.
|MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. COMPRESSA; IMMUNE SYSTEM; PECTIN
||BSMLS/ 255/ 2014
||Martinez, Flord Naezel B.; Ardena, Arlene C.; Caringal, Arcelle Mariel C.; Panopio, Gabrielli L.; Pundano, Ronelle Ryan B.; Reyes, Michaella M.
||Immunomodulatory effect of Pectin from peels of Musa sapientum var compressa (Saba) in Swiss Albino mice
||In the experiment, pectin in Musa sapientum var. compressa peel wastes was extracted yielding 2.52%. Using the pectin of the fruit’s peels, its modulation action was determined through immunomodulatory bioassays in Swiss Albino mice. Compared to the normal group, 200 mg of pectin induced within 21 days significantly increased (p<0.05) the production of antibodies against foreign antigens shown in secondary humoral antibody titer with result of 115 HA unit. This indicates enhanced humoral immunity. A measure of 0.56mm in the fottpad thickness of the mice was obtained from the group of pectin treatment. This indicates increased delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction; thus, enhanced cellular immune system. In hematological parameters, pectin significantly increased (p<0.05) red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin and hematocrit levels with result of 4.60×106/ul, 141.94g/l and 45%. The mentioned bioassays were also enhanced in immunosuppression-induced mice treatment with pectin compared with the immunosuppressed group without treatment. However, there was a significant decrease in white blood cells with a result of 7.06×109/L which attributed to the stress occured in mice during the study. Pectin from the peels of Musa sapientum var compressa has immunomodulatory effect which stimulated the immunity of the mice.
|NEPHROTOXOCITY; LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (IPIL-IPIL) ; POLYPHENOLS; TANNIN
||BSMLS / 242/ 2013
||Atienza, Mark Laurence M.; Catapang, Carla G.; Lara, Aerielle Kimberly A.; Sanchez, Layka N. ; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Nephroprotective and therapeutic effects of Leucaena leucoceophala (Ipil-Ipil) leaf crude and tannin extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxocity in Sprague Dawley rats
||The researchers aimed to prove that the tannin and the crude leaf extracts of L. leucocephala possess nephroprotective and therapeutic effects against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. They also aimed to assess which treatment design produces the maximum positive health effects in kidneys and the ones which cannot significantly arrest the damaging effects of the drug as influenced by the treatment methodology and also, to determine what would be the possible results on the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine if treated with the crude and tannin extracts. It was concluded that the crude and tannin extracts of L. leucocephala has both protective and therapeutic effect with better results observed in crude extract.
|OREGANO CRUDE EXTRACT; HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA; HEPATOPROTECTIVE
||BSMLS / 234/ 2013
||Dimaapi, Anna Marie M.; Erni, Rodney James C.; Magbanua, Arah Jane M.; Obtial, Baby Kate C.; Perez, Kevin F.; Salazar, Monica I.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Lowering potential on serum cholesterol of Origanum vulgare crude leaf extract in hypercholesterolemic rats
||The objective of this study is to assess the different uses of Oregano crude extract specifically its effectiveness in lowering cholesterol level in albino rats. It aimed to evaluate the potential effect of the crude extract to become an alternative drug for hyperlipidemia in lieu of the costly drugs in the market. This research was was performed in order to serve as a basis for potential of natural drug production rather than using synthetic chemicals which can cause adverse effects to humans. The results of the study revealed that O. vulgare can be a potential source to lower hypercholesteremia with hepaprotective effect.
|PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS; PANDAN; ANTICOAGULATION PROPERTY
||BSMLS / 235/ 2013
||Navera, John Paolo M.; Abe, Jessel Mae P.; Alzate, Nicole Beatrice E.; Bacay, Dessa Joy C. ; Masangcay, Anne Vernadette Z.; Sandoval, Maricicris R.: Dumaoal, Shane Oliver R.; Cabanela, Reby A.
||Effects of Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb. Ethanoloc leaf extract on blood coagulation and platelet count using Wistar albino rat as a model
||This study was designed to scientifically investigate the possible effects of Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb (Pandan) in blood coagulation and platelet activity through assessing the hematological indices namely platelet count, bleeding time, clotting time, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time using Wistar rat as a model. The results indicated that there were significant increases (p<0.05) in the clotting time and APTT level of the rats treated with 400mg/kg and 800 mg/kg concentrations and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, across each group implicating that there was a significant difference observed across each greoup at p-value , 0.05 as also observed on the post hoc analysis conducted using Turkey method. On the other hand, clotting time of 200 mg/kg treated groups were found out to be not significantly affected when multiple comparisons on the effects of extract per group were analyzed. The platelet count at all doses did not sjow significant difference(p,0.05) when compared to normal control after the 10th day of administration of the plant extract indicating that the effect is just the same. Bleeding time and prothrombin time that were prolonged in all concentrations were found out to be not statistically significant with the control (p.0.05). It was concluded that Pandan leaf extract exhibits anticoagulant propoerty as evidenced in the significant prolongation of clotting time and activiated partial thromboplastin time at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg concentrations.
||BSMLS/ 203/ 2010
||Alaras, Ladylyn; Dahilan, Karen G.; Depadua, Sarah Andrea A.; Pulmones, Christine Joy G.
||In Vitro activity of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) leaves crude extract against bacterial isolates
||This study aims to assess the antibacterial properties of pandan with the end view of providing low cost of medications and the prevention of resistance. It also discuss the phytochemical compounds of pandan leaves crude extract. It also determine the in vitro activity to the test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also focuses the biological activity of crude extract against MIC and MBC and the stability in pH and temperature. As results from the experimentation, pandan at modified concentration has varying in vitro activity agains bacterial isolate. The 40% concentration of pandan is partially active against S. aureus based on the mean zone of inhibition observed. However, its concentrations have no activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The MIC of pandan against S. aureus is between 20-40% and its MBC is 40%. The antibacterial activity of pandan is affected with varying pH of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0. These results suggest that the effectiveness of pandan is stable at low pH and not suitable in alkaline. This indicates that the antibacterial property of pandan is better at alower pH. The antibacterial activity of pandan is affected with variety of temperature specifically at 40o C, 50o C, 80o C and 100o C. These results indicate that the effectivity of pandan is not stable as antibacterial agent in terms of temperature. It is recommended to determine and isolate the definite constituent of pandan that is responsible for its microbial activity. To include the pharmacokinetic studies in pandan toxicity and drug interactions and identify the exact mechanism of pandan which take account of its abtimicrobial activity. Distinguish other factors such as the effect of moisture and length of storage since these factors can affect the antimicrobial activity of pandan and assess the stability in storage of pandan and its potential antifungal activity.
|PARASITISM; LEUCAENA GLAUCA (IPIL IPIL)
||BSMLS/ 219/ 2012
||Delgado, Jeanne Janiza B.; Lacsaman, Ed G.; Macatangay, Raizel S.; Marquez, Reyshelle Ann B.; Miranda, Charrize Franchesca R.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Antiheminthic activty of Leucaena glauca (Ipil-Ipil) seed and leaf extracts in an Ascaridae model
||This study was carried out to evaluate the antiheminthic activity of Leucaena glauca (Ipil-Ipil) seed and leaf extract in an Ascaridae model. Aqueous seed and leaf extracts of l. glauca was tested against Ascaris suum in vitro. Eggs and adult worms were exposed to 5 increasing concentrations of Ipil-Ipil seed and leaf extracts. Results of this stufdy revealed an ED50 of 105 mg/ml leaf extract concentration and 47 mg/ml seed extract concentration in egg hatch test. While an ED50 of 102 mg/ml/ concentration of leaf extract and 96 mg/ml concentration of seed extract in adult motility assay was also obtained.Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference (sig. value of 0.037) in the distribution of unfertilized eggs of seed and leaf extracts. It also revealed the similar distribution (sig. value of 0.114) of immotile worms in adult motility test on both extracts. Furthermore, this study presented a dose-dependent antihelminthic activity of Ipil-Ipil which provides a new and potential cure against intestinal parasitism.
|PERIWINKLE CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT
||BSMLS/ 202/ 2010
||Adaya, Merrilyn P.;Candelario, Karen Heisel L.; Magnaye, Reyna Rose A.; Sandioval, Krisel R.
||In Vitro Evaluation Of Periwinkle (Catharanthus Roseus) Crude Leaf Extract For Potential Antifungal Activity
||This study determines the medicinal value of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) for its potential antifungal activity. In several studies, periwinkle showed clinical significance like anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-plant nematodal and antibacterial properties. Using the periwinkle crude leaf extract, the researchers seek out for the biological activity of this plant against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2663 Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 which observed that there are no zone of inhibition against these kind of fungi. The researchers did not determined to what extent of biological activity in terms of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration since it has no activity against the organisms. The test for its stability including pH and temperature were also not assessed since there is no activity in the biological screening of periwinkle crude leaf extract. Based on the experiment conducted, the study obtained that the periwinkle crude leaf extract at 1000µg/disc has no antifungal activity against the specified and given fungi.
|PLATELETS; BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION; TRANSFUSION
||BSMLS/ 207/ 2011
||Marasigan, Harold O; Cueto, Mary Ann; De la Cruz, Ray Carlo; Guico, Amy; Regondola, Sherwin; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane
||Incidence of bacterial contamination among platelet concentrate units in selected blood service facilities in the Province of Batangas, Philippines
||Bacterial contamination of platelet units represents the largest infectious disease risk in transfusion medicine. This study determined the incidence of bacterial contamination of platelet units from three major blood service facilities (BSFs) in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. Furthermore, this study also identified the bacterial organisms present in the contaminated platelet units and formulated good laboratory practices to improve the bacteriological safety of platelet units. Laboratory practices and blood collection procedures of the staff from the three blood service facilities were also evaluated through direct observation with a checklist. A total of 106 platelet samples representing 35.57% of the total platelet production of selected blood service facilities were screened for bacterial contamination from July to September 2010. Of the total units screened, 10 units tested positive for bacterial contamination with a detection rate of 9.43% resulting to a bacterial contamination incidence rate of 3.36%. Six samples tested positive for Bacillus subtilis, two samples had inconclusive identification results. Assessment of the working practices of participating BSFs revealed that all blood centers always adhere to good manufacturing practices in the production of platelets. Lowest performance scores noted during the observation period were on the monitoring of the quality of platelet units during storage. It is recommended that the risk reduction strategies for post-transfusion sepsis be implemented as well detection of bacterial in samples of blood components prior to transfusion-related-reactions should also be employed
|PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (GUAVA);
||BSMLS / 244/ 2013
||Macalalad, Patricia Mae U.; Balmes, Sarinah Mae R.; Barbosa, Jogen Joy C.; Estro, Cynthia D.; Magbojos, Carina R.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Anti-angiogenic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava) crude saponin extract on ex ovo chick choriollantoic membrane assay
||This study investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of Psidium guavaja Linn. Crude saponin extract using shell less chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. After 72 hours of incubation of the fertilized chicken eggs, they were cracked open and eventually explanted on cell culture dishes and were again incubated for 48 hours. Fifty microliters of triple distilled water (negative control group), 25%, 50?%, 75% and 100% crude saponin extract were applied at the center of the blastodisc. They were returned to the incubator and observed macroscopically after 48 hours. Five photographs of different CAMS for each group were evaluated and the average number of blood vessel branch points was quantified. The data obtained were statistically analyzed uusing one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Turkey’s multiple comparison post hoc tests to compare the level of significance between all groups. It was found out that there were no significant differences between all groups. The data were also analyzed using independent sample t-test to compare each experimental group to the control group. Significant differences were observed between the following concentrations: 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of extract as compared with the negative control. Findings of the study indicate that Psidium guajava crude saponin extract have an anti=angiogenic effect on ex ovo CAM assay. It might also have a clinically significant value in the suppression and inhibition angiogenesis, the key hallmark of tumorigenesis, carcinogenesis ans metastasis; thus clinical testing is recommended.
|RUTIN; AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS (URAY); METABOLIC SYNDROME, HIGH FAT DIET
||BSMLS/ 257/ 2015
||ortiz, eden Collen May D.; Balmes, Joanah Jane R.; Gongora, Bella Gracia V.; Huarde, Devaney Releen B.; Mejia, May Kimberly C.; mercado, Judy Ann E.; Munar, Mark Levin S.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Rutin from Amaranthus spinosus (Uray) against metabolic abnormalities and myocardial infiltration in high fat, high fructose diet-fed Sprague Dawley rats
||This study investigate the suppressing effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid from Amaranthus spinosus on high-fat-high-fructose (HFFD) diet induced metabolic abnormalities and myocardial infiltration in rats model. Male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 140 – 160 grans, were randomly divided into 6 groups: 2 groups received with either a control or an HFFD diet for 30 and 45 days, the next 2 groups were administered with control treatment-rutin in either diet for the last 30 days only of the 45 day protocol. HFFD group with rutin (Group VI) as compared to HFFD diet alone (Group II and IV) had the following p-values: triglyceride (0.013 and 0.000), HDL (0.471 and 0.181), total cholesterol (0.549 and 0.125), LDL (0.903 and 0.186), VLDL (0.011 and 0.0000, and glucose (0.000 and 0.000), respectively. This implies that rutin administration had significantly suppressed an increase triglyceride, VLDL and glucose levels. It was also found out that rutin prevented the test animals from consuming too much fod and gaining excess weight. However, it causes no effect on the level of total cholesterol and LDL. Histopathological findings of the study presnt that rutin administration could also suppress the occurrence of inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in the heart of HFFD-fed rats.
|SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM (TALAHIB); ASCARIS SUUM; TRICHURIS SUIS
||BSMLS / 239/ 2013
||Andaya, Mary Michaela R.; Cabrera, Jonna Mae O.; Caguite, Leovilee B.; Enriquez, Mhay M.; Magtibay, Ariam Diehl L., Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Reyes, Redencion B.
||Antihelminthic activity of Sacchurum spontaneum (Talahib) against ascaris suum and Trichuris suis
||This study determined the potential of Saccharum spontaneum (talahib) against parasitic and intestinal infections. Moreover, it also determined to prove the possibility of S. spontaneum as a source of alternative antihelminthic agent in reference with other conventional drugs since there has been an increasing need for alternative agents due to the development of drug resistance. Results revealed that S. spontaneum roots and leaves showed antihelminthic activity when compared to the standard drug. The antihelminthic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts as compared to mebendazole is not statistically significant. The effect of the extracts used compared to the standard drug is the same. Any concentration from the extracts can cause both paralysis and death to the parasites.
|SAMANEA SAMAN (ACACIA); ALKALOIDS; ANTIFUNGAL
||BSMLS/ 204/ 2011
||De villa, Mara A.; Cabinian, Karlo Edison F.; Cueto, Jort Oliver A.; Gallardo, Jofel B.; Gallemit, Marc Joseph S.; Macatangay, Gretel Ann E.; Mendoza, Jelynn Low V.
||In Vitro activity of the Alkaloidal extract of Acacia (Samanea saman) leaves against selected fungal isolates
||The researchers want to determine the possibility of developing the alkaloid leaf extract as an alternative drug against fungal infections. The study made use of the experimental method in the extraction, isolation and determination of antifungal property of the alkaloids from acacia against test microorganisms: Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevesiae, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum canis, and Trichopyton mentagrophytes. The alkaloid extract was extracted at the DOST using the percolation method, a direct extraction procedure where a brown crystalline alkaloid powder was obtained. The antifungal property of the acacia alkaloidal extract was determined using MIC and MFC. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined using the tube dilution method which determines the level of biological activity against the selected test isolates. The concentration of Acacia alkaloid extract that produced inhibitory effect against selected test isolates were subjected to Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) determination to know the lowest concentration that can kill fungi. The average MIC for all fungal isolates is 326.5ug/ml while completly destroyed at an average concentrates of 2825 ug/ml. Stability of the acacia alkaloid extract is also assessed to confirm any changes on its antifungal activity when subjected to varying temperatures and pH. It was found that the acacia alkaloid extract is stable at varying temperatures of 20oC, 40oC, 50oC, 80oC and 100oC while its stability was found to be affected when subjected to varying pH.
||Lizardo, Jenny Rose A.; Runio, Jean Claudine C.; Sanchez, Chrisblaine C.; Tolentino, Farah Fides N.
||ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY OF SAMBONG (Blumea balsamifera) ESSENTIAL OIL
||The study the determined the antimicrobial activity of Sambong essential oil to ATCC 25923, ATCC 8739, ATCC 27853; also, the extent of it to the selected test isolates such as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC); then the stability to basicity and acidity (pH) and temperature, and last, the toxicity of its essential oil. It resulted that Sambong essential oil has biological activity against S. aureus producing mean zone of inhibition of 12mm and 10mm in 40% and 20% respectively. However, it has no biological activity against the other test which are P. aeruginosa and E. coli. It produced only 6mm of mean zone of inhibition at concentrations of 40%, 20%, 10% and 5% which is interpreted as inactive or no antimicrobial activity at all. The MIN that can inhibit the growth of S. aureus is at concentration 20% and 40%. It has no inhibitory effect against S. aureus indicated by presence in concentrations 5% to 20% in MIC determination. The MBC against S. aureus is 40% indicated by the absence of growth. It indicates that essential oli can kill S. aureus is at 40%. The subjected temperature showed growth of essential oil is at 100 degrees and 80 degrees Celsius otherwise at temperature of 40 and 20 degrees Celsius which indicated the Sambong essential oil is stable only in this temperature. At pH 8 and 6, growth of S. aureus can be observed and no growth at pH 4 and 2. The acute toxicity of Sambong can be seen from concentration higher than 0.005%. The lethal concentration that killed 50% of guppies is 0.005% which indicates that Sambong essential has the toxic effect to guppy fish.
|SOLANUM MELONGENA (TALONG); NEPHPROPROTECTIVE, RENAL TOXICITY; GENTAMICIN
||BSMLS / 251/ 2013
||Acuzar, Eunice T.; Arellano, Jhenica Christine M.; Corachea, Ron Joseph A.; Dagli, Marie Antonette D.; Latorre, Gian Luan S.; Narciso, Shaira Marie A.
||Nephroprotective activity of Solanum melongena extract on gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats
||This study evaluated the possible nephroprotective effect of S. melongena as a natural antioxidant against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. It determined the acute toxicity of doses of S. melongena being applied in rats and compared the protective effect of varying dosages of the crude extract of the plant. Phytochemical anaysis of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids. The lethal dose of the extract was found out to be greater than 225 mg/kg. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that S. melongena has a nephroprotective activity starting at 100 mg/kg suggesting that it can be an alternative agent in treating gentamicin-induced kidney damage.
|STAR FRUIT; PECTIN; CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.)
||BSMLS/ 206/ 2011
||Santos, Roy Vincent; Briones, Robe Rose; Cabuhayan, Jun; Mendoza, Camille Rae; Malabanan, Rennelyn
||Effect of crude pectin derived from averrhoa carambola l. (carambola) in the lipid profile of sprague-dawley rats
||Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit is commonly known as star fruit because of its unique star-like appearance and rich golden color. This fruit is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. In some Asian countries, the mature fruit is eaten fresh and relished in pickle preparations. It is rich in antioxidants and vitamin C and low in sugar, sodium and acid. It is also a potent source of both primary and secondary polyphenolic antioxidants. It also contains pectin that has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels. The mechanism appears to be an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract, leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or food. This study, therefore determined the effect of pectin derived from carambola fruit in the lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. Four-week administration of 150mg of pectin to the laboratory animals lowered their serum total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels of the laboratory animals while high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased. A p-value of <0.05 shows no significant difference on the effect of 150mg of pectin against 10mg of Atorvastatin calcium. Further studies on the effects of pectin, especially on serum HDL level, is recommended.
|SUNFLOWER SEED OIL; SOYBEAN OIL; OLIVE OIL ; HYPOGLYCEMIC
||BSMLS/ 215/ 2012
||Mendoza, Barry U.; Cabacas, Melvin D.; Derain, Jo-Anne H.; De Roxas, April M.; Maranan, Noemi D.; Virtucio, Sam Lemuel D.
||Hypoglycemic effect of sunflower seed, soybean and corn oil on Alloxan-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats
||This study determined the effect of sunflower seed, soybean and corn oil on the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of Alloxan-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Results of the study revealed that corn oil produced the highest hypoglycemic effect on the FBG levels of laboratory animals at a concentration of 1ml and 6ml/a00g body weight followed by sunflower seed and soybean oil. Statistical analysis of the experimental data however revealed that there is no significant differences in the effect of 1ml/100mg and 6ml/100mg of sunflower, soybean, corn oil and glibenclamide at <0.05 level of significance. This implies that the oils used in the study exhibited hypoglycemic properties similar to that of glibenclamide and therefore can be used as an adjunct nutraceutical to lower blood glucose levels. Further testing on a larger population of animal models is recommended.
|TAMARINDUS INDICA (TAMARIND); TANNIN
||BSMLS / 247/ 2013
||Panganiban, Kathleen C.; Cleofe, Arian May A.; de Castro, Jeneth C.; De la Rosa, Fatima M.; Luceo, Alma Fatima M.; Rosales, Ian Matthew C.; Reyes, Redencion B.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.
||Chelation of heavy metals from aqueous effluents by tannin based adsorbent derived from barks of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind Tree)
||This study showed the maximum adsorption capacity of tannin based adsorbent, obtained through the extraction and gelation method described by Matin et al. (2011), when applied to simulated wastewater containing lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) with regards to the rationality of two paramaters markedly pH and concentration. Solutions of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) with concentrations of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, and 30 mg?L were prepared, adjusted at a pH of 4.5, and treated with 0.50 g of tannin based adsorbent. Three solutions with concentrations of 10 mg/L each were also prepared, adjusted at pH 3.5,4.5 and 5.5 and treated with 0.20 g of tannin based adsorbent for both lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perklin Elmer A-Analyst 400) was used to analyze the degree of adsorption. Results showed that 99.91%, 99.88% and 99.68% of lead (Pb) ions were adsorbed in a concentration of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L of lead (Pb) solution, respectively, while at a fixed concentration but varying pH of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, 99.97%, 99.96%, and 99.94% were adsorbed, respectively. Likewise, with the same varying concentrations for mercury (Hg) ions, 99.98%, 99.96% and 99.94% percent removal were obtained. Moreover, with the same changes of pH values, mercury (Hg) ions adsorption give rise to 99.99%, 99.98% and 99.97% removal. ANOVA paired with t-test reavealed significant differences indicating that tannin gels are effective adsorbents for the removal of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) ions with consideration to pH and concentration.
|VITAMIN D; CALCIUM; PREGNANT WOMEN
||BSMLS / 243/ 2013
||Uy, Maria Rosario S.; Abacan, Jean Cyril M.; Mendoza, Syrah Z.; Perez, Reiss A.; Reyes, Camille Veil M.; Dumaoal, Oliver Shane R.; Magbojos, Carina R.
||Determination of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its associated maternal factors and relation to socio-economic status among pregnant women in Batangas City
||This study focused on the investigation and assessment of vitamin D levels among 60 healthy pregnant women at 4-6 months of gestation. Vitamin D level were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test kit and test results were correlated to their total calcium levels. Sixty five percent (65%) were found to be deficient despite the abundance of sunlight in the country, thirty percent (30%) were insufficient and the remaining five percent (5%) were sufficient. The findings of the study showed that there is no significant relationship between the vitamin D levels and total calcium. All the profile variables were proven not to have a significant relationship with the vitamin D levels. On the other hand, the monthly family income, which is a major indicator of socio-economic status, was found to affect the calcium levels of the participants.